Reviews of All Cryptocurrencies for Decentralized finance (DeFi)

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Terms #

  1. Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is:
    • Decentralized & trust-free finance that removes the need of a centralized 3rd party
    • Decentralized Finance = Trust-Free Cryptocurrency + Trust-Free Financial Derivatives
  2. Cryptocurrency(Coin) is:
    • Decentralized & trust-free digital currency/money/‘gold’ that removes the need of a centralized 3rd party
    • Cryptocurrency is the most important subset & foundation of decentralized finance (DeFi)
  3. Cryptopennystocks(Token) include Utility Tokens/governance tokens/Subcurrencies/sub-tokens created on another blockchain, cryptoponzis, some small utility coins. They are actually not penny stocks, here it’s defined as such because they are very similar.
    • Cryptopennystocks are not necessarily bad, they are a new type of digital assets enabled by blockchain. Some investors may be able to trade them profitably, but usually they are centralized and more risky..
    • Most of the time, they have nothing to do with real decentralization. It’s not something we like, however the market like to trade them.
    • Because it’s cost nothing to create sub-tokens, there are more scams in this category.
    • Cryptoponzis is a subset of cryptopennystocks, they are smart ponzi schemes built on blockchain
  4. CeDeFi A term coined by binance ceo. CeDeFi is Semi-decentralized finance that is marketed as decentralized finance, but in fact has many central failure points. Currently CeDeFi might offer better user experience, and is non-custotial(which means users have control over their own funds offline.)

Criteria for evaluating cryptocurrencies: #

Proof of Work Crypocurrencies for decentralized finance (DeFi) #

Proof of Work coins (Coinpaprika)

Code Built From Stratch #

  1. Bitcointrust-free currency/money/store of Value,digital ‘gold' without trusted 3rd party. Proof of Work with ASIC miners

    • Currency exists to solve coincidence of wants problem.
    • Bitcoin solves coincidence of wants problem in the same moment in time without trusted 3rd party.
    • “Without money it would be very difficult to buy things, because you probably don’t have anything that the other person wants, so you can’t pay. This is called the “Coincidence of wants problem”.
    • By solving the spacial coincidence of wants problem, money allows for career specialization. People can specialize in just fishing, because they know they will be able to sell the fish as long as someone else wants to buy them.” – Zack Hess Read More
    • No ICO, known premine: 1 million BTC;
      • It’s estimated that ‘Satoshi’ controls around 1 million bitcoins based on information publicly available.
    • 2008.10.31 Satoshi Nakamoto - Bitcoin Whitepaper
    • 2008.10.31~2014.3.7 Satoshi Nakamoto - All of Satoshi’s messages since 2018
    • Zack Hess - bitcoin
    • Zack Hess - bitcoin_without_block_rewards
    • Zack Hess - Drivechain
  2. Amoveotrust free Financial Derivatives without trusted 3rd party, Prediction Markets, Futarchy,FPGA/ASIC friendly Proof of work, most trust-free Crosschain DEX on the market that is automatically compatible with all blockchains, sharding(sortition_chains)

  3. Snowblossom – Pure cryptocurrency - A backup plan for Bitcoin, payment currency, Proof of Work with Large RAMs & SSDs, flexible quantum resistant design, *Snowblossom Content Channels*(Decentralized web), decentralized patreon for content creators, Bitcoin’s economic model, Sharding

  4. Kadena – PoW, “fast hybrid blockchain platform”

    • Kadena’s hybrid blockchain platform consists of a public blockchain, a permissioned network, and the Pact smart contract language.
    • public blockchain is the sharded and scalable layer-1 PoW network in production today. It utilizes a Proof of Work consensus mechanism that improves throughput and scalability while maintaining the security and integrity found in Bitcoin. To achieve this breakthrough in scalability, Kadena has braided together multiple Bitcoin-like chains
    • Private blockchain Drawing on the team’s expertise from working at JP Morgan and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the Kuro permissioned network was designed to meet the strict requirements and business workflows that secure $100B order books.
    • private blockchain delivers scalability and usability beyond any other private blockchain today. It can scale to thousands of nodes and has been proven to achieve up to 8,000 TPS with latencies below 100ms in real-world testing.
    • The Pact smart contract language Pact already contains all of the features that other projects say they will develop eventually, including full Formal Verification of user code, error messages, contract upgradability, multi-signature, and support for interoperability.
    • Telegram:
  5. Conflux – “a Fast & Scalable Tree-graph based PoW Nakomoto Consensus protocol to enable higher throughputs and faster confirmations”

    • Proof of work smart contract platform for DeFi, novel Tree-Graph consensus mechanism that optimizes security, scalability and decentralization
    • The only state endorsed public, permissionless blockchain in China
    • Telegram:
  6. Ergo

  7. Hathor

    • Funding
      • Hathor Labs raised funds selling equity and pre-mined tokens.
      • As the main network had not been launched at the time, tokens were sold through Simple Agreements for Future Tokens (SAFTs).
      • Hather made a seed investment round with Friends & Family and some selected private investors.
      • The funds have been primarily used to support both the development of our technology and the launch of the mainnet.
    • Hathor achieves consensus using proof-of-work and the same hash of bitcoin (sha256d).
    • “Solve the problem of scalability with a novel architecture using both DAG and Blockchain intertwined”
    • Achieving 200+ tps with no central coordinator or masternodes.
      • An easier and safer implementation of Smart Contracts which connects real world data (oracles).
    • Easy to use - any 13-years-old kid can create their own token for fun. You don’t need to know about “gas”, “solidity”, or “ERC 20” paraphernalia.
    • zero fee for exchanging token
    • Telegram:
    • Hathor FAQ
  8. Beam – POW, Mimblewimble Privacy Coin

  9. Grin – POW, Mimblewimble Privacy Coin 

  10. Dero

    • Privacy Coin,similar to monero. A complete re-write of the CryptoNote protocol in Golang.
    • PoW +DAG consensus combining a Proof of Work blockchain with a DAG block structure
    • It combines the Cryptonote protocol with directed acyclic graph and Bulletproofs. ( Rocket Bulletproofs, leading to blocktimes of just a few seconds)
    • Private Smart Contract: “Dero is the first CryptoNote blockchain to have smart contracts on its native chain without any extra layers or secondary blockchains”
    • 2019.11.13 Jungle - The Understory Series: DERO
  11. Nimiq – proof of work payment currency written in Javascript

  12. Tera - Dapp platform that claims to have 1000tps scalability with sharding

  13. Pascalcoin – POW, Payment Currency with Safebox, ‘Deletable blockchain'

  14. Mochimo – POW, payment currency, claimed to be quantum resistant ( ‘Patented', Closed source, big premine)

  15. Ixian - “a platform that enables encrypted data streaming and high volume of micro-transactions”

  16. Cruzbit - simple cryptocurreny built from scratch with GO. A simple decentralized peer-to-peer ledger implementation.

    • Cruzbit is like Bitcoin, but with most of the confusing, and extraneous implementation details removed.
    • Built with developers in mind, cruzbit aims to make it easier to develop applications which interact with the blockchain.
    • Application developers shouldn’t have to worry about complex transaction generation or signing, and instead with cruzbit can generate transactions with just a few lines of code in most languages.
  17. ParallelCoin

    • Multi-algo proof of work crypto currency.
    • Fair release with no premine, no IPO and no ICO.
    • Algorithms: SHA256D & SCRYPT

Forks #

  1. Komodo – DPOW, Privacy Coin, Dapp platform, Zcash fork

  2. Zcash – POW, Privacy Coin , Fork of Bitcoin

  3. Ravencoin

  4. Digibyte

  5. Forks of ETH: Ubiq, Pirl, Ellaism

  6. Monero – POW, Fork of Bytecoin, Cryptonote/RingCT Privacy Coin,

  7. Forks of monero/cryptonote: Sumokoin, Conceal Network, Masari, Intensecoin

    • Wownero
      • a Doge-inspired, CPU-mineable, privacy-centric memecoin.
        • fork of Monero with a lite version of RandomX (1MB scratchpad), a ring size of 22, a faster difficulty adjustment, and dynamic coinbase unlock times.
        • launched with no premine, instamine, stealth-mine, ICO, or dev tax.
  8. Forks of zcash: Hush, ycash

  9. Veriblock

  10. DogeCoin

  11. Verge $XVG  – Fork of Dogecoin. Privacy Coin. Onion routing for anonymity

PoW,PoS/Masternode hybrid #

  1. Horizen – PoW+Masternode, Fork of Zcash, Private Cryptocurrency and Sidechain platform, interoperable blockchain ecosystem

    • Horizen’s sidechain platform focuses on scalable data privacy and enables businesses and developers to custom build their own public or private blockchains using its unique sidechain technology, Zendoo.
    • Telegram:
  2. Zano

  3. Decred – PoW+PoS, Bitcoin Clone with On-chain Voting Governance + atomic swap DEX

  4. Bismuth – PoW+Masternode. Built from scratch with python. Smart Contract Platform built from scratch with python

  5. Webdollar - built from scratch blockchain, pure cryptocurrency. mining directly in browser, Hybrid Mining using PoS and PoW

  6. Nervos $CKB built from scratch Dapp platform

  7. Dash – PoW with masternode. Privacy Coin, Pivx – Dash Fork, Phore, fork of Pivx

  8. Zilliqa – PoW+pBFT, works on sharding, Dapp platform

  9. Aeternity – Ethereum Clone. Aeternity Telegram:

    “AE software is a non-compatible rewrite of Ethereum into Erlang. “

  10. Enecuum – PoW+DPoS+Proof of activity masternode. built from scratch blockchain. “Blockchain mobile network for decentralized applications.”

  11. Arionum - PoW+Masternode, PHP blockchain, a platform that’s easy to build blockchain based applications using PHP

Non-PoW Cryptocurrencies for decentralized finance (DeFi) #

(Proof of Stake & DAG etc.)

New Consensus Algorithm #

  1. Radix – non-blockchain cryptocurrency
  2. NYZO – Medium of exchange Currency; Proof of Diversity
  3. IDENA
  4. Burstcoin - bitcoin fork, First Proof of space of storage cryptocurrency
    • 2018.7.1 Kan Yilmaz - Burstcoin
    • Other coins that are similar to burstcoin or use storage device for mining or staking
      1. Snowblossom - The only storage device based pure proof of work cryptocurrency ; burstcoin/BHD/chiacoin/spacemesh’s consensus is more similar to proof of stake.
      2. Chiacoin (Testnet)
      3. Spacemesh (Testnet) - “A fair cryptocurrency designed to become a global means of payment.”
      4. Filecoin
      5. BHD

Proof of stake #

Proof of stake coins(Coinpaprika) Proof of stake coins(Coingecko) BFT Coins(Coinpaprika) Masternode Coins (Coinpaprika)

  1. Ethereum 2.0 – ICO Platfrom, Non Fungible Token Platform, Smart Contract/Dapp platform, “DeFi” for sub-tokens

  2. Solana - built from scratch blockchain, “High performance blockchain based on Proof of History” “a high-speed single-layer blockchain, currently supporting peak capacity of 65k transactions per second and 400ms block times in a globally distributed network with more than 400 nodes. It’s explicitly built to scale transaction throughput with Moore’s Law (doubling GPU core count every ~2 years). There is NO SHARDING required to achieve this throughput.”

  3. Oasis Network $rose built from scratch blockchain

    • confidential smart contracts
    • “Scalable, Private DeFi”
    • “a privacy-first, proof-of-stake, decentralized network.”
    • “A network designed to give users back control and ownership of their data, while supporting new applications in open finance and open data”
    • Overview of the Oasis Network
  4. Cardano – Proof of stake, built from scratch blockchain, Smart Contract/Dapp platform

  5. DFINITY – Proof of stake, decentralized cloud platform

  6. Avalanche – built from scratch blockchain, leaderless, metastable, and PoW-free BFT protocols

    • “an open-source platform for launching decentralized applications and enterprise blockchain deployments in one interoperable, highly scalable ecosystem”
    • Zack Hess - avalanche
    • Zack Hess - Emin Gun Sire
    • Paul Sztorc - “When AVA was pitched to me in 2018, it was described as a new alternative to “Old PAXOS consensus” and to “Proof-of-Work”. AVA’s consensus measured the quantity of nodes it was connected to, and their opinion on the state of the network, making it obviously vulnerable to Sybil (ie, an attacker creating many nodes so as to have more influence). I asked “is AVA for cryptocurrency”? “Yes”. I calculated the weekly block reward value of BTC (~ $60,000,000). I asked, “how will AVA resist Sybil, given that an attacker can spend millions per week on Sybil and still make a profit”? The answer was “AVA is keeping that part secret, because rivals will copy us.” (8/27/2020)
  7. Algorand – built from scratch blockchain, Pure proof of stake blockchain platform

  8. Near protocol built from scratch blockchain, dapp platform

    • “A scalable, developer-friendly blockchain powering the new open web.”
  9. Elrond built for scratch blockchain, “a scalable, fast and secure blockchain platform for distributed apps, enterprise use cases and the new internet economy.”

  10. Tezos – Smart Contract/Dapp platform

  11. Ardor – POS, Dapp platform

  12. NXT

  13. NEM – Proof of Importance

  14. Icon $icx dapp platform

  15. Rchain – Proof of stake, Dapp platform

  16. Free Ton

  17. Stratis

    • “a enterprise-grade Blockchain development platform offers end-to-end solutions for native C# blockchain applications and Smart Contracts”
  18. Cloakcoin – Proof of stake Privacy Coin. Onion routing for anonymity

  19. Quantum Resistant Ledger $QRL - a ‘fully quantum resistant blockchain, using PQ-CRYPTO recommended/IETF standardized cryptography’

  20. QuarkChain – Dapp platform

  21. Blacknet

  22. Taraxa Consensus: Block DAG and Proof of stake.

    • built to make informal transaction data clear and trusted.
    • Taraxa closes the trust gap for informal transactional data with audit logging
  23. Deepbrain Chain $DBC

Delegated Proof of Stake/Tendermint BFT #

Delegate proof of stake coins (Coinpaprika) Delegate proof of stake coins(Coingecko) Consensus Compare: Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS

  1. Cosmos $ATOM – Tendermint BFT, Blockchain for interoperability, Crosschain Decentralized Finance

  2. Polkadot – Delegated Proof of Stake, built from scratch Blockchain for interoperability, Crosschain Decentralzied Finance

  3. ARK – built from scratch dapp platform

  4. Lisk – built from scratch dapp platform

    • 2018.7.1 Kan Yilmaz - Lisk
  5. Lamden – dapp platfrom

    • “smart contracts are in Python so you spend 4-5x times less time programming smart contracts when compared to Ethereum”
  6. IoTeX

    • IoTeX started in 2017 as an open-source project, built completely from scratch (no forks) and is tailor fit to support Internet of Things (IoT) use cases.
    • To support the high scalability required for IoT use cases, IoTeX decided to use a Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) design. IoTeX randomly selects 24 of the top 36 Delegates to mine blocks every hour.
    • The IoTeX platform enables builders to easily launch privacy-preserving IoT devices, apps, and networks.
  7. TRON – DPOS, Smart Contract/Dapp platform, Ethereum clone

  8. Steemit

  9. EOS - DPOS (delegated  proof of  stake)  Smart Contract/Dapp platform

  10. $NEO dapp platform

    • 2018.7.14 Kan Yilmaz - Neo
  11. Ontology

  12. NULS - “The MicroServices Blockchain Platform”

    • “a highly customizable blockchain infrastructure that features a microservices architecture, and offers a chain-building product, including smart-contracts and cross-chain consensus.”
  13. Aergo - BFT+DPOS “The Blockchain for Business”

  14. BUMO - DPoS+BFT model, has voting, built from scratch commercial blockchain

  15. Aelf - “Decentralized cloud computing blockchain network”

    • claims to have “unlimited scalability, cross-chain collaboration mechanism and multi-level main-chain side-chain system”
    • “designed as a complete business solution. The structure of ‘one main chain + multiple side chains’ allows developers to independently deploy or run DApps (Distributed Applications) on individual side chains to achieve effective resource isolation”
    • “By adopting parallel processing and the unique AEDPoS consensus mechanism, aelf’s technology achieve high throughput.”
    • “Based on the cross-chain technology of the main chain index and verification mechanisms, aelf achieves efficient and secure communication between the main chain and all side chains & direct interoperability between side chains.”
  16. Raicoin – built from scratch blockchain, payment currency. Block-lattice with Staking Reward,Distributed DPoS (DDPoS)

  17. Phantasma $soul - blockchain for Gaming, NFTs & dApps.


Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) Coins(Coinpaprika) Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) Coins(Coingecko)

  1. Hashgraph – Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs), Smart Contract/Dapp platform

  2. Obyte(Byteball) – Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs), payment currency

  3. Nano – Block Lattice, payment currency, instant, zero-fee, scalable

  4. IOTA – Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs), (Centralized)

  5. Vite – a general-purpose platform for decentralized applications

    • “A High Performance Asynchronous Decentralized Application Platform”
    • Vite advantages
      • implement smart contracts within a DAG structure.
      • introduces asynchronous sending/receiving of transactions, resulting in fast transaction speeds with transaction confirmation in seconds and low-cost smart contract creation.
      • fee-less transaction model.
      • utilizes a unique snapshot chain model that greatly strengthens the transaction security by eliminating the inherent security flaws associated with DAG.
      • “built-in decentralized exchange.”
  6. COTI – “DAG-based blockchain protocol optimized for use by payment dApps, merchants and stable coin issuers.”

  7. Constellation $DAG “Constellation allows you to implement security and auditability for complex datasets without changing existing IT infrastructure. It’s secure, cost-effective, scalable, and easy to integrate.”

    • Constellation is decentralized protocol standard HGTP (Hypergraph transfer protocol) that enables standardization, connection, validation and exchange for data streams.
    • As such the network acts as a software infrastructure tool that removes the financial and organizational cost of insecure data pipelines and bad data.
    • It provides a secure and tamper-proof audit trail that simultaneously validates your data, allowing early visibility for data management teams into downstream issues – preventing bad logic across automated systems.
    • Constellation is working with the USAF under the SBIR framework and several enterprise and blockchain partners to drive adoption of the Constellation Hypergraph network.
  8. Zack Hess - spectreDAG

Other consensus algorithm #

  1. Stellar – FBA(Federated Byzantine Agreement), payment network, cross-border payments
  2. Ripple – cross-border payments (centralized)

Forks & Utility Coin #

  1. BNB –  Utility:  Users are incentivized to hold BNB to get trading fee discounts, IEO privileges, referral bonus benefits from binance. BNB is probably one of the most widely used ‘utility coin'.
  2. Shift DPOS Coin, Utility Coin for Decentralized Web

Crosschain Decentralized Exchange(DEX) #

  1. Amoveo Crosschain DEX
  2. Atomic Swap Crosschain DEX
  3. Incognito
  4. Serum
  5. Bisq - a decentralized exchange based on 2-of-2 multisig addresses
  6. Cosmos
    • Thorchain
    • Binance DEX The benefit is non-custotial. It is not a decentralized exchange, projects need to pay a lot to get listed.
    • Sifchain
  7. Chainflip

Cryptopennystocks - “DeFi” / CeDeFi #

Here utility tokens/governance tokens/Subcurrencies/sub-tokens created on another blockchain are classified as cryptopennystocks, because they are very similar.

  1. Zack Hess - bonding_curves

  2. Marketcap

  3. Decentralized exchanges built for trading sub-tokens & cryptopennystocks

    1. AMMs(Automated market makers)
    2. Orderbook DEX
    3. DEX Aggregators - DEXs that also aggregate orders & liquidity from multiple DEXs
  4. Derivatives

    1. Zack Hess - perpetual_swap
    2. Syntheix - Onchain Synthetic assets (Similar to CFDs)
    3. dYdX - onchain leveraged trading, perpetual contracts (perpetual swaps).
    4. bZx - Tokenized Margin Trading and Lending
    5. Augur prediction markets
    6. Opyn On-chain options trading for eth & erc20 tokens
    7. Nexus Mutual on-chain insurance for smart contract hacks(Users decide whether an insurance claim is legitimate)
    8. Cover
  5. Lending

  6. Tokenizing real-world assets

    • Polymath
  7. Stablecoins

  8. Portfolio management:

  9. Ray The Robo Advisor for Yield, smart contracts that optimize yield by automatically allocating assets to the highest yielding fixed income opportunities

  10. Yearn $YFI

  11. NFTs(non-fungible tokens)

  12. More Hacks Analysis

Risk with “DeFi” / CeDeFi #

  1. Long term risks: Fundermentals of projects change quickly, only hold digital assets with strong fundermentals to reduce risk. ‘DeFi’ sub-tokens have weak fundamentals in the long term, one of the reasons is most of these projects can work perfectly fine without sub-tokens.
  2. VC exit pump risk: VCs might be able to get tokens for free or next to nothing, while retail traders are lured into buying at as high as 100Xs higher than VCs' price. Many retail traders prefer investing in VC backed project because:
    • a. They believe VCs will “pump their bags” to entice more “greater fools”, and
    • b. They believe VC backed project is easier to get listed on exchanges and will have better marketing.
    • This strategy will probably work for some people under 2 conditions:
      • a. The project has been designed correctly and is able to survive and be successful in the long term. In this case the long term trend is always going higher despite short term corrections. Currently we don’t believe DeFi sub-tokens belong to this category of projects.
      • or b. In an overheated market, there are more greater fools. In this case if market conditions or fundermentals of project change, those buy at 100x or 1000x higher than VC’s price will have high risk of being fleeced if they do not get out in time.
  3. Volitity Risk DeFi sub-tokens will be manipulated & pumped and dumped. Price swings of digital assets will be much larger than the ROI you get from staking/yield farming
  4. Regulatory risks DeFi apps on ethereum for example, in fact are semi-decentralized(not truly decentralized), regulators can easily shut them down if they are not legally compliant, which is not unlikely, e.g. some projects are offering certain financial products/services without approval from regulators
  5. Centralization risks/3rd party risk centralized control of the protocol by developers that allow them to change anything
  6. Governance Risk - Voting with governance tokens. Voting does not work & is insecure.
  7. Economic risks design has flaw that can be abused & funds can be drained by attackers.
  8. Network fees risk Fees become too high for regular users to do anything meaningful
  9. Technological risks bugs and hacks in the smart contract systems, not uncommon in ethereum ecosystem
  10. Platform Risk the blockchain that sub-token is created on have fundermentally flawed design.
  11. Taxes: users may need to pay income tax for staking/yield farming reward in some countries

Cryptopennystocks - “decentralized” apps ("Dapp") & Centralized apps #

Utility Tokens/governance tokens/Subcurrencies/sub-tokens created on another blockchain are classified as ‘crypto penny stocks’ here, because they are very similar.

  • Imagine every application selling their volitile digital tokens that’s created out of thin air and claimed to have utility within the app.
  • Imagine every online computer game making their in-game currency tradable like a penny stock. Will that be something we want?
  • That is what’s offered by many Dapps that don’t have much users yet.
  1. OmiseGO $OMG
  2. NuCypher - Cryptographic Infrastructure for Privacy-Preserving Applications
  3. Quant Network
  4. Power Ledger
  5. Quantstamp $QSP,
  6. Ocean Protocol
  7. Tornado cash Non-custodial anonymous transactions on ethereum
  8. TenX $PAY
  9. Kik
  10. Tierion $tnt
  11. BitClave $cat
  12. Unikoin Gold $ukg
  13. Paragon $prg & airfox(airtoken) $air
  14. Gladius Token $gla
  15. Munchee ICO
  16. Health Nexus

Exchange tokens - Best use case? #

  • Tokens issued by exchanges that have large user base.
  • This is best example because currently exchange tokens have more users the any other use case.
  • And these users are already traders that know how to trade tokens.
  • Some exchange tokens may have more inherent value than many cryptocurrencies.
    • They are backed by real world utility
      • For example, exchanges might incentivize users to hold these tokens with various benefits such as reducing trading cost.
        • e.g.
          • BNB (Binance)
          • HTB (Hotbit Token)
    • They can also be similar to stocks.
      • It’s like buying a share of the exchange business.
  • It’s not without risk. If the exchange fails, then the token will die.

Decentralized web(web3.0) #

Storage Coins(Coinmarketcap) Storage Coins(Coingecko)

  1. Snowblossom Proof of work, Snowblossom Channels (blockchain + torrent)
    • Websites are seeded peer to peer like torrent. It’s one of the most practical solutions for decentralized internet, but user acquisition might be a problem.
  1. Arweave built from scratch blockchain,Proof of work coin, “Arweave makes information permanence sustainable.”

    • “Arweave enables you to store documents and applications forever.”
    • “Arweave is a new type of storage that backs data with sustainable and perpetual endowments, allowing users and developers to store data forever”
    • “A new data storage blockchain protocol based on a novel proof of access consensus mechanism that creates truly permanent data storage”
  2. Skycoin – built from scratch blockchain, Consensus Algorithm: Obelisk, Skywire mesh network,permissioned dapp platform, utility coin for decentralized internet,

  3. MaidSafe – autonomous and decentralised data network

  4. NKN - token, “decentralized data relay network built on Blockchain & incentivized by a native token.”

  5. FileCoin – “a decentralized storage network” proof of space (not proof of work)

  6. Handshake Proof of work, “an experiment on collaborating to create a decentralized network which results in a global allocation of names”

    • The Internet currently relies upon a single trust root DNS zone and an amalgamation of private companies providing trusted Certificate Authorities to secure the internet, Handshake is an experiment and exploration in alternatives.
    • By providing a way to do decentralized lookup of name records, one can produce hashes and keys to identify resources over decentralized networks without a trusted Certificate Authority corporation
  7. Elastos code built from scratch, “Smart-web powered by Blockchain”

    • “Elastos is an open-source project building a decentralized internet powered by blockchain.”
  8. Holochain – a cloud hosting market for distributed applications

  9. Helium – built from scratch blockchain for peer-to-peer wireless network

    • Helium was founded in 2013 with a mission to build a peer-to-peer wireless network, “The People’s Network”, to simplify connecting devices to the Internet.
  10. LBRY – built from scratch blockchain for decentralized publishing

  11. Shift DPOS Coin, Utility Coin for Decentralized Web

  12. Siacoin – Proof of work, decentralized cloud storage platform

  13. Placeholders – Proof of work, utility coin for decentralized VPS

  14. Livepeer $LPT - sub-token on ethereum. Livepeer is a decentralized video streaming network built on the Ethereum blockchain

Oracles #

  1. Amoveo - Oracle designed by zack hess
  2. API3 - API3 is a DAO dedicated to build, manage and monetize decentralized APIs at scale. Decentralized APIs will provide data to blockchain projects and dapps with quantifiable and trustless security guarantees.
  3. Ergo Oracle Pools
  4. UMA - “A decentralized financial contracts platform built to enable Universal Market Access.”
  5. Augur – Sub-token on Ethereum, Prediction markets.
  6. Chainlink - $link (sub-token)
    • Zack Hess - chainlink
    • Paul Sztorc - “ is an oracle service, which purports to solve “The Oracle Problem”. Last I checked (2019), it established a “a platform for oracles to compete” – I joked that it was “as if SpaceX hired no engineers, but made ‘a platform for Reusable Rocket Companies to compete', and then claimed to solve the problem of reusable rocketry”. Blockchain Oracles have an inherent “opportunity cost of honesty” which is akin to gravity in the SpaceX analogy (or, more precisely: escape velocity) – for the rocket to work, someone needs to generate a force stronger than the gravity; abstract “competition” won’t necessarily guarantee it. When the smart contracts control small $, the gravity is weak, and anyone with two working legs can make it into space by jumping (thus, the contracts are “secured via indifference”)– but when the $ grows, the gravity gets stronger. Moreover, chainlink seems to implicitly endorse two theories: [1] “more oracles = safer and diversified”, and [2] “we don’t need to look into it if everyone’s doing it”. Those errors contributed significantly to the 2008 financial crisis. Finally, chainlink oracles seem to be mostly used for frequent ‘price check-ins' – as I wrote in Jan 2015 this overworks an oracle, for basically no reason (degrading its security).” (8/27/2020)
  7. Tellor
    • Tellor is an oracle system where parties can request the value of an off-chain data point (e.g. BTC/USD) and miners compete to add this value to an on-chain data-bank, accessible by all Ethereum smart contracts.
    • The inputs to this data-bank are secured by a network of staked miners.
    • Tellor utilizes crypto-economic incentive mechanisms, rewarding honest data submissions by miners and punishing bad actors, through the issuance of Tellor’s token, Tributes (TRB) and a dispute mechanism.
    • Zack Hess - tellor_oracle
  8. Zack Hess - parasite_contracts
  9. Zack Hess - town_crier
  10. Zack Hess - bribery
  11. Zack Hess - fast_oracles
  12. Zack Hess - Aeternity
  13. Zack Hess - witnet
  14. Wagerr

Scam #

Reviews of Coin listing websites #

    • best because it emphasize and list built from scratch original blockchains first and foremost
    • Code completely built from scratch is a very good indicator of quality, but not all built from scratch blockchains are good and not all forks of another project are are copycat that don’t have any new innovations. It’s not the only factor we should consider.
    • Github dev activity is not the best metric to evaluate projects, because if the design of a project is fundermentally flawed, more development activilty is meanlingness. And dev activites measure quantity, not real quality of work which is what really matters.
    • Developer activities are only available to public repos hosted on GitHub
  2. Useless
  3. SANbase – Currencies
  5. Coingecko Problems:
    • Misclassifying centralized sub-token as cryptocurrency
    • Misclasssifying CeDeFi as DeFi
    • Overemphasizing ‘penny stock’-esque sub-tokens
  6. Coinmarketcap - All Coins
  7. Messari Screener
  8. Privacy Coins (Coingecko)
  9. DeadCoins
  10. Fiat Currencies:
  11. All of the World’s Money and Markets in One Visualization
  12. Live Coin Watch
  13. CoinCheckup
  14. Coinlib
  15. World Coin Index
  18. Visualization

Which Exchange? #

  • You will find almost all of the original blockchain projects listed on hotbit (Hong Kong) and qtradeio (US).

  • With any exchange, it’s important to send long terms holdings to offline wallets. “Not your keys, not your coins.” Read this guide to learn how to make your digital assets absolutely secure.


  • FX-C.COM want to promote the technology of disintermediation/decentralization and support it by holding some of the most innovative cryptocurrencies that have the potential to move us closer to a trust-free world.
  • FX-C.COM currently hold $BTC, amoveo $VEO, Snowblossom $SNOW. Average Users like the convenience of (semi-)centralized technologies. More decentralized projects might fail due to lack of UI&Marketing, but we still support them because their potential impact to the world. Content on should not be interpreted as investment advice.